Monday, March 9, 2009

Debate on Kozma and Clark

Learning occurs by the instructional method embedded in the presentation. It is the method of delivering instruction. What do we mean by method? Method is the inclusion of a number of possible ways of delivering information that is necessary for learning which students cannot provide for themselves. Method is the active ingredient. Method will allow us to use media to its fullest potential as long as we are implementing the correct methods. Some forms of instructional delivery get the active ingredient faster or slower than others. Method is the cognitive process or strategies that are necessary for learning. Media is just a “mere vehicle that delivers instruction but do not influence student achievement.” We should design something that requires the least expensive solution. Media can be used that may be cheaper and more efficient Clark believes that media is a tool used to transport knowledge. Any media can be used for the learning goal. It could be videos, software, and sound. The focus should be on the way the information is presented. Humans possess representational systems: visual, verbal, kinesthetic, regardless of materials presented by book or computer. The learning process includes active cognitive processing, including, selecting, organizing, and integrating mental representations, this promotes meaningful learning. So the methods used to transmit knowledge and promote learning must be based on human cognitive processes in order to be effective. Clark states new media wears off over time and exposure again lessens the effects. This method will have different learning efficiencies for different learners. What exactly is learning? 1. Cognitive Learning: The acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes. 2. Cognitive Processes: This includes creating mental representations of physicals objects and events. Educators have been trying to improve schools with every technology we have invented, beginning with Edison. We should focus on skills like writing and reasoning, and reliable work habits. Research has shown that students need to be motivated in order for learning to occur. Technology is neat. But it does not teach students to read, write, problem-solve or think critically. Our parents and grandparents all attended schools that have had little or no technology. They had all learned the basics just fine with textbooks and blackboards; the crisis in education has to do with how it is valued in society and families. And no amount of money or technology will solve that problem. For students, who value their own education, technology is a nice addition to the classroom and the curriculum. But for those that do not, technology is only a distraction. “Many different media attributes could accomplish the same learning goal.” Clark, R. (1994) Media Will Never Influence Learning. ETR&D, 21-29.

Saturday, February 14, 2009

Professional Organizations

I visited the websites of these professional organizations and compared them using three factors: 1. Mission, 2. opportunities for professional development and networking, and 3.benefits to members. I reviewed the following three professional organizations.

The Association for Educational Communications & Technology is the leading international Organization of its kind. The mission of the association is to provide
leadership in Educational technology and its application to the learning
. This is the best organization to enhance your expertise and your skills. This is a must especially if you want to be an expert in Educational Technology.

The International Society for Technology in Education is a source for professional development and innovation. ISTE provides leadership and service to improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. It provides the effective use of technology in K–12. In addition, it provides the information, networking opportunities, and guidance to education. As far as enhancing your craft as a teacher, I would recommend this professional organization.

The International Technology Education Association (ITEA) is the professional organization for technology, innovation, design, and engineering for educators. The mission is to promote technological literacy for all by supporting the teaching of technology and promoting the professionalism. ITEA strengthens the profession through state and national legislative efforts, professional development, membership services, publications, and classroom activities. This organization provides the government support and leadership to schools. It is extremely useful for teachers who want to further the knowledge of government and technology.

Friday, February 13, 2009

Notes on Robert Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

Robert Gagne is considered to be the foremost contributor to the systematic approach to instructional design and training. Gagne and his followers are known as behaviorists, and their focus is on the behaviors that result from training. Most effective training programs have a "performance" focus, incorporating design and media that facilitate retention. In addition to media, Gagne has implemented the nine events of instruction to enhance retention. Applying Gagne's nine-step model to any training program is the best way to ensure an effective learning program session.

1: Gain attention!

Giving learners a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction

2: Inform learners of the objectives

Telling learners what they will be able to do for the instruction

3: Build on prior knowledge

Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge

4: Present the stimulus

Displaying the content

5: Providing learners guidance

Supplying organization and relevance to enhance understanding

6. Eliciting performance

Asking learners to respond, demonstrating learning

7. Providing Feedback

Giving immediate feedback on learner's performance.

8. Assessing performance

Providing feedback to learners more performance for reinforcement

9. Enhancing retention and transfer

Providing diverse practice to generalize the capability

Denny Clifford Case Study

Describe the communication barriers operating in this case. Suggest strategies for circumventing or eliminating those barriers.
Denny and Cynthia have clear communication barriers. Both have different objectives. Both need to work together. Cynthia’s teaching philosophy needs to be clarified. Denny needs to clarify what he does not understand. Denny needs to research Cynthia’s constructive approach in regards to teaching and learning. He can also observe Cynthia in her teaching environment. Regardless, to have effective communication, both have to simplify language. Both Denny and Cynthia must keep it simple and easy to understand. Both need to ask questions and give answers. This will make the conversation richer and more interesting.

Describe how the identified resources can be repurposed to address specific ID needs.

The biggest challenge is learning the client’s philosophy. He has to become familiar with what the client wants. This will result in the development of the correct instructional strategies. To become familiar, he can read Cynthia’s articles, contact the 24 teachers who have completed Cynthia’s workshops, and interview them to have a better understanding of the teachers’ expectations. He can watch the videotapes of teachers engaging their students in problem-solving activities. He can read the grant proposal and ask questions. Denny could offer an approach after completing his homework. After finding objectives in Cynthia’s article, he can propose a plan of action. Cynthia can provide her feedback and or revisions. In addition, Cynthia would have listed objectives for Denny. A joint effort will result in the best solution.

What type of media, delivery mode, and instructional techniques might be appropriate for this content, audience, and client? Justify your recommendations. I would create a website, similar to Web CT with interactive activities, chat and resources. Web blogs can also be a good solution for Cynthia. The key to success is making the content accessible for everyone involved. An interactive website can provide many opportunities. People who have a demanding schedule and work specific hours can access the website at their convenience. This would be a great solution due to the fact that Cynthia did not want to host workshops and hold individual meetings. Everyone could have access and participate through an online workshop.


Hello everyone, my name is Joseph. I'm a High School World History and Government teacher for LAUSD. I have been teaching for ten years. I love teaching. As a teacher, I am also a life-long learner. I am pursuing a Master's Degree in Computer Education to enhance my teaching. I wish to become an expert in developing educational media and technology and incorporating media and technology into my classroom.

Saturday, January 24, 2009

My Instructional Technology Definition

Final Group Definition: "Instructional Technology is the field of study where hardware and software are used to solve real world problem through an instructional design process that has clear objectives and that is constantly evaluated." - Anass, Joseph, and Christian - EDIT 451

My definition: Instructional Technology is the study and practice of hardware and software that brings inforinamation alive through technology. It facilitates learning and performance in the classroom.